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Medical Glossary - E

 
  • endorphins
    These morphine like substances are produced on exercise and have a direct action on the brain giving a sense of euphoria.

  • entheses
    The entheses are the insertions into bone of collagenous structures such as tendons, ligaments and articular capsules. The entheses are subjected to heavy loads and it is probably repeated stresses that cause the characteristic changes or abnormalities in the entheses which are called enthesopathics.

  • enthesitis
    Inflammation of the muscular or tendinous attachment to bone.

  • enthesopathies
    As far as work related upper limb disorders are concerned the most common enthesopathies are the tennis and golfer's elbows (where the tendons are inserted into the lateral epicondyle and medial epicondyle) leading to epicondylitis. Others are the supraspinatus tendinitis, and the abductor longus tendinitis. The long tendon of the biceps, supraspinatus tendon, and the extensor pollicis longus are three examples of tendons which are prone to rupture without violent stress or injury.

  • epicondylitis
    This is characterised by pain in the lateral or medial aspect of the elbow often radiating down into the forearm. It is due to inflammation caused by strain of the forearm extensor or flexor muscles at their point of origin. Epicondylitis appears under many names such as tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, javelin thrower's arm, but many occupational jobs involving hammering or lifting with outstretched fingers under pressure may bring about this typical clinical picture.

  • epistemological
    Epistemology is the science which deals with the origin, method and validity of knowledge. Ergonomics - The application of strict engineering and scientific principles to the design of the work place and the work place equipment, tools, machinery, seats and furniture. 'Fitting the worker to the job and the job to the worker.'

  • expert witness
    The function of an expert witness is to assist the Court in coming to a conclusion. It is not the function of an expert witness to be biased one way or another. He should be an expert in his field and prepared to give his opinion dispassionately - no matter who is paying his fee. The expert witness should be able to act either for the Plaintiff or the Defendant being there merely to put forward the facts to allow the Court to come to its own conclusion based on those facts.
    “It would be off no assistance to the Courts if doctors were encouraged to abandon their professional approach and write reports designed to achieve particular objectives, at the behest of the patient or anyone else.” Nolbe v. Thompson 1979

 

 
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